In the past decades, the European Union has expanded significantly from the original six members states in 1957 till twenty eight member states in 2013. This enlargement can be explained in many various ways of different influence from policies and treaties. One of the most important treaties are the Treaty of Lisbon that provides instruments and security considerations to normative and discursive reasons. The European Union enhance efficiency and coherence, ranging from economic and trade policy and gradually supplementing new sectors for example – social policy, immigration policy, energy policy and justice or home affairs. This process has been implented by many various treaties, including most notably the Treaty of Rome. Critics claiming that the treaty of Lisbon were paving the way for an unelected European super-state, while proponents presented them as the way forward for a bigger EU in the 21st century.
This course paper will be about understanding the Treaty of Lisbon – the ratification on 2009, if it represents another step towards an even closer union in the process of European integration through many spheres. The new process after the ratification have strenghtened the notion of a democratic deficit. The Treaty of Lisbon have delimitated the competences of EU better because there is an increased effectivity of the institutions and efficiency of the decision making process. Jerzy Buzek stated that The Lisbon Treaty will help EU deliver on citizens expectations. Let EU be successful and not just have the potential of success.
Strenghtening the European Parliament and the role of national parliaments, giving citizens more opportunities to Express their views and ensuring a clearer division of responsibilities at European and national level.
Elected from all member states, the European Parliament after the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon have greater influence and new powers in relation to the EU legslation, the EU budget and international agreements. There is more space for policy-making alloted to the co-decision procedurel thus most of the EU legislative procedures. The European Parliament has gained equal footing with the Council, respresenting each Member States.
More involvement of national parliaments is a great advantage for the member states to have more influence on decision making in areas that can affect them or something contrary nonane. National parliaments are more likely to engage in the work of the EU, in particular through a new mechanism to monitor the implementation of the principle of subsidiarity, that is, whether the EU should only act in cases where the results can be better achieved by action at EU level. In addition to the strengthened role of the European Parliament, it will promote democracy and enhance the legitimacy of the European Union.
As an democratic union and the role of human right defender, in the Treaty of Lisbon, after ratification, citizens have now greater role in participation of activities in the EU. Thanks ot the Citizens initiative, one million citizens from different member states may invite the Commission to draw up proposals for a new policy.
The relationship between member States and the European Union will become more clearer thanks to the precise division of competences. the Treaty of Lisbon concerns the abolition of the three-pillar structure of the EU. three types of competence and draws up a non-exhaustive list of the fields concerned in each case:
· exclusive competences (Article 3 of the TFEU): the EU alone is able to legislate and adopt binding acts in these fields. The Member States’ role is therefore limited to applying these acts, unless the Union authorises them to adopt certain acts themselves;
· shared competences (Article 4 of the TFEU): the EU and Member States are authorised to adopt binding acts in these fields. However, Member States may exercise their competence only in so far as the EU has not exercised, or has decided not to exercise, its own competence;
· supporting competences (Article 6 of the TFEU): the EU can only intervene to support, coordinate or complement the action of Member States. Consequently, it has no legislative power in these fields and may not interfere in the exercise of these competences reserved for Member States.
Using simplified working methods and voting rules, streamlined and modern istitutions of the European Union of 28 member states and improving function in a number of priority areas of the EU now.
Effective decision-making process. Qualified majority in voting system of the Council has also introduced new policies to decision-making faster and more efficiently. From 2014, a qualified majority will be calculated on the basis of Member States and their citizens double majority, reflecting the dual legitimacy of the European Union. Double majority will be reached if a decision is taken 55% of the Member States, with a population that corresponds to at least 65% of the EU population.
Stable and streamlined institutional framework. The Treaty of Lisbon establishes a permanent European Council President position, which is elected for 2,5 years, to take into account the results of the European elections, the election of the President of the Commission, to establish a new framework of the European parliament in the future, in addition, the Agreement makes clearer rules on enhanced cooperation and finance.
A better life for Europeans. The Treaty of Lisbon improves the EU’s ability to act in various policy areas which are priorities of our time in the EU and its citizens. This applies especially to the area of freedom, security and justice policies, such as the fight against terrorism or crime.
A better life for Europeans. The Treaty of Lisbon improves the EU's ability to act in various policy areas which are priorities of our time in the EU and its citizens. This applies especially to the area of freedom, security and justice policies, such as the fight against terrorism or crime. Less affected areas such as energy policy, public health, civil protection, climate change, services of general interest, research, space, territorial cohesion, commercial policy, humanitarian aid, sport, tourism and administrative cooperation.
Expressing the values of the EU, including the Charter of Fundamental Rights into European primary law, providing for new solidarity mechanisms and ensuring better protection for European citizens.
Democratic values. The Lisbon Treaty further reinforces the values and objectives since the European Union inception. These values lead to an European population point of reference and demonstrate what Europe has to offer its partners worldwide.
Civil rights and the Charter of Fundamental Rights. The Treaty of Lisbon preserves existing rights while introducing new ones. It especially fundamental rights guaranteed by the Charter and the principles of freedom, giving it legally binding rules. This applies to civil, political, economic and social rights.
European civil liberties. The Treaty of Lisbon preserves and reinforces the four freedoms of European citizens as well as political, economic and social freedom.
Solidarity between Member States. The Lisbon Treaty states that the European Union and its Member States shall act jointly in solidarity if a Member State or a terrorist attack occurs in the natural or man-made disaster. Also highlighted the energy solidarity.
Greater security for all. Expanding the European Union's capacity in the area of freedom, security and justice, the EU can better fight against crime and terrorism. New provisions on civil protection, humanitarian aid and public health also improves the Union's ability to respond to threats to the safety of citizens.
Bringing together Europe's external policy tools, both new policy development and implementation. The Treaty of Lisbon gives Europe a clear voice in relations with partners around the world. Europe's economic, humanitarian, political and diplomatic strengths to resound European interests and values around the world, subject to the particular interests of the Union for Foreign Affairs of the Member States.
European Union High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who will also be Vice-President, raise the impact, coherence and visibility of EU external action. A new body - the European External Action Service - to provide resources and support to the High Representative.
The European Union, obtaining legal personality will strengthen position to negotiate, more effective on the world stage and a can be more visible partner for third countries and international organizations.
With the development of the European Security and Defence Policy will preserve special decision-making procedures, but also pave the way for enhanced cooperation between some Member States, the merger of the group.
The European Union is a political structure which runs by democratic ideology. The Treaty of Lisbon makes this union more democratic and more open due to the changes of the world. National parliaments and the European Parliament recieves more power within legislative side. It also acquires a greater role in determining the budget - the old split between "compulsory" and "non-compulsory" expenditure has been canceled. Parliament will decide on the entire EU budget, together with the Council.
In this way, elected officials will have an important role, a more important role than before, in comparison to EU officials that are appointed by different institutions. We find that this change should increase the legitimacy of the EU, as decisions are brought closer to the ordinary citizens through their representatives.
Members of consent will be required for different international agreements for which negotiations leading to the European Union - such as international trade.
Have more power means more responsibility. Along with the new mandate for its decisions more than ever a direct impact on the life of the population. Parliament in all its activities fully comply with EU citizens' rights under the Treaty of Lisbon included in the Charter of Fundamental Rights.
MEPs will have a new role in its relations with other EU institutions. The following election results will directly affect the choice of candidate for President of the Commission. Commission as a whole, including the EU High Representative for Foreign and Security Affairs, before the takeover will receive the approval of the Parliament.
Finally, the Lisbon Treaty gives the European Parliament the right to propose changes to the contract.
· P. Craig, The Treaty of Lisbon, process, architecture and substance (2008) 33(2) European Law Review, p.137–166.
· Foreign policy provisions http://www.statewatch.org/news/2007/aug/eu-reform%20treaty-csfp1-2-2.pdf [viewed: 2014.10.30.]
· The Treaty of Lisbon. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=OJ:C:2007:306:FULL&from=EN [viewed: 2014.10.30.]
· Sebastian Kurpas and Ben Crum. The Treaty of Lisbon: Implementing the Institutional Innovations. 2007:. CEPS, EGMONT and EPC. P. 143